Transactional Analysis (TA) is a theory of personality and personal growth and personal change.
Transactional Analysis therapy developed by a psychoanalytic-trained psychiatrist Eric Berne through group integration and seminars. Berne suspected that Parent, Adult, and Child ego states might be tied to specific areas of the human brain. Berne identified a typology of common counterproductive social interactions, identifying these as “games”.
TA approach based on the following theories:
A theory of personality: TA uses the ego-state (Parent-Adult-Child) model to describe how people are structured psychologically, functioning and expressing themselves in their behaviours.
A theory of communication: TA extends to a method of analysing systems and organisations.
A theory of child development with the Freudian developmental stages -oral, anal, phallic. The idea of a “Life (or Childhood) Script”.
TA offers a theory of a broad range of psychopathology which can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of many types of psychological disorders, and provides a method of therapy for individuals, couples, families and groups.
TA offers help teachers remain in clear communication at an appropriate level, in counselling and consultancy, in management and communications training, and by other bodies.
Individuals are seen to exhibit personality traits and behaviour through ego states known as Parent, Adult and Child determining an individual's personality. Transactions are the flow of communication, and more specifically the unspoken psychological flow of communication that runs in parallel. Analysis of the person’s transactions, according to the person's individual developmental history, would enable the personal changes.
TA core models and concepts
The Ego-State (or Parent-Adult-Child, PAC) model states that a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Three ego-states that people consistently use: Parent (exteropsyche) acting as parental figures acted.
Adult (neopsyche) is processing information; learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA; while a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality.
Child (archaeopsyche): acting as they did in childhood; the Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy.
Within each of these ego states are subdivisions. Thus Parental figures are often either nurturing (permission-giving, security-giving) or criticizing (comparing to family traditions and ideals in generally negative ways). Childhood behaviours are either natural (free) or adapted to others. These subdivision categorize individuals' patterns of behaviour, feelings, and ways of thinking, that can be functional (beneficial or positive) or dysfunctional/counterproductive (negative).
Technique: Transactional analysis. One of the most important aspects of TA: the contract- an agreement entered into by both client and therapist to pursue specific changes that the client desires.
Kinds of transaction
Reciprocal or Complementary Transactions: Reciprocal transaction occurs when both partners are addressing the ego state the other is in. These are also called complementary transactions (Adult to Adult, Child to Child, Parent to Child and Child to Parent - psychologically balanced exchange of strokes can continue for some time).
A crossed transaction is likely to produce problems. A: “Have you been able to write that report?” (Adult to Adult) B: “Will you stop hassling me? I'll do it eventually!” (Child to Parent) A: “If you don't change your attitude, you'll get fired”.
Duplex or Covert transactions: the explicit social conversation occurs in parallel with an implicit psychological transaction (Adult response to Adult statement, Child to Child body language).
Phenomena behind the transactions build psychological pressure.
Life (or Childhood) Script: a life plan, directed to a reward; decisional and responsive; reinforced by parents, other influential figures and experiences; mostly outside awareness; writing own life story trying to make sense of the world and his place within it. the core story is selected and decided upon typically by age 7. Ways of Time Structuring.
Redefining and Discounting: the distortion of reality to match our preferred way of seeing the world and a substitute reaction, passivity, over-adaptation, agitation, anger and violence.
Injunctions and Drivers: twelve key injunctions, child's beliefs, which people commonly build into their scripts (as Don't be (don't exist) and six drivers (as Please (me/others).
The ego states are shaped through by childhood experiences, parental and cultural influences which could damage them. It would bring discomfort to an individual in a variety of forms, including many types of mental illness.
Analyzing these transactions, according to the person's individual developmental history, would enable the person to “get better”.
Counselling may be provided via Skype and FaceTime in the comfort of your home, office or any place of your choice.