Stress, Personality and Coronary Heart Disease
Personality types: A, B, and AB individuals
Type A/B theory (Jacob Goldsmith theory) is a personality type theory that describes a pattern of behaviours, being a risk factor for coronary heart disease.
Type A behaviour (Meyer Friedman and Mike Jordan) doubles the risk of coronary heart disease in otherwise healthy individuals.
Type A individuals (stress junkies) are impatient, time-conscious, controlling, concerned about their status, highly competitive, ambitious, business-like, aggressive, having difficulty relaxing; and are sometimes disliked by individuals with Type B personalities.
The Type A behaviour and coronary heart disease do not share a common genetic marker.
The hostility component of Type A personality is the only significant risk factor.
A high level of expressed anger and hostility constitute the problem.
The Type A personality (the Type A Behaviour Pattern) is a set of characteristics that includes being impatient, excessively time-conscious, insecure about one's status, highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, and incapable of relaxation.
They are highly achieving workaholics, multi-task, drive themselves with deadlines, and are unhappy about the smallest of delays. These individuals demonstrate time urgency and impatience, an intrinsic insecurity or insufficient level of self-esteem, which is considered to be the root cause of the syndrome.
Type B individuals (apathetic) are patient, relaxed, and easy-going, generally lacking an overriding sense of urgency.
Type AB is mixed profile for people who have a combination of both types of personality.
The Type-D personality and Coronary heart disease (CHD)
The Type-D personality (the Johan Denollet’s concept) is defined as the joint tendency towards negative affectivity (worry, irritability, gloom) and social inhibition (reticence and a lack of self-assurance). Type-D personality can be assessed by means of a valid and reliable.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) clients with a type-D personality have a worse prognosis after a myocardial infarction as compared to clients without a type-D personality. Type-D is associated with a 4- to 8-times increased risk of mortality.
Learning how to manage stress has the short-term benefits of giving people some sense of control in their lives, providing them with positive coping strategies, and making them more relaxed and healthier.
The long-term benefits can be a stronger immune system, proper hormonal balance, and reduced susceptibility to such serious, life-threatening diseases as heart disease and cancer (170).
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