A propositional attitude is a relational mental state connecting a person to a proposition.
They are often assumed to be the simplest components of thought and can express meanings or content that can be true or false.
In being a type of attitude they imply that a person can have different mental postures towards a proposition (believing, desiring, or hoping), and thus they imply intentionality and associated with linguistic modality.
Deviations of observations from expectations are commonly perceived as surprises, phenomena that call for explanations to reduce the shock of amazement.
Deviations of observations from intentions are commonly experienced as problems, situations that call for plans of action to reduce the drive of dissatisfaction.
Either type of discrepancy forms an impulse to inquiry (136).
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