An illusion is a false idea or belief, a deceptive appearance or impression, or a false or unreal perception (117).
Illusions are misperceptions of external stimuli.
Physiological illusions are usually contingent perceptual after-effect, such as the afterimages following bright lights or adapting stimuli of excessively longer alternating patterns.
Cognitive illusions: Ambiguous illusions are pictures or objects that elicit a perceptual switch between the alternative interpretations, such as the Rubin vase (the figure-ground illusion).
Distorting illusions are characterized by distortions of size, length, or curvature.
Paradox illusions are generated by objects that are paradoxical or impossible, such as the Penrose triangle or impossible staircases seen, for example, in M. C. Escher's Ascending and Descending and Waterfall.
Fictional illusions (called hallucinations) are defined as the perception of objects that are genuinely not there to all but a single observer, such as those induced by a hallucinogen. Perceptual ambiguity is not restricted to vision.
Auditory illusions are illusions of hearing, the sound, which is not present in the stimulus, or impossible sounds when the brain replaces the missing fundamental signals. Examples: illusory continuity of tones.
Touch illusions are the passive tactile illusions and active touch illusions.
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