Drug abuse and substance abuse
There are the four major classes of abused drugs (psychostimulants, opiates, ethanol, and nicotine).
There are individuals who abuse drugs from different classes, i.e. poly-drug abusers. Drug abuse potentially creates drug addiction and drug dependence.
In neurochemical terms opiate receptors are G-protein-coupled, and the exposure of G-protein-coupled receptors to agonists usually results in desensitization of the receptor.
Other drugs of abuse also act on (e.g., cannabis) or via (e.g. cocaine, amphetamine and, more indirectly, nicotine) G-protein-coupled receptors. Rebounding supersensitivity of such receptors will, where the receptor usually receives endogenous input, result in withdrawal symptoms.
Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens is involved in drug addiction and correlates with consumption of drugs of abuse. Increased dopamine release in the orbitofrontal cortex, which projects to the accumbens, correlates with the motivation to engage in behaviours aimed at procuring more of the abused substance.
Triggering of drug seeking associated with activation of the accumbens by a glutamatergic projection from the prefrontal cortex. Human and animal studies have demonstrated pathological changes in this prefrontal-accumbens circuitry after extended drug use.
Paradoxical reactions, such as aggression, violence, impulsivity, irritability and suicidal behaviour sometimes occur as the result of consequences of disinhibition, loss of control over socially unacceptable behaviour.
Therapy can help you address the causes of addiction to help you stop your addictive behaviour (4).
If you require help and advice Counselling and Psychotherapy may be provided via Skype and FaceTime in the comfort of your home, office or any place of your choice.