Concept of psychodynamics
Concept of psychodynamics is based on the concepts of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Melanie Klein.
The principles of psychodynamics (Ernst von Brucke, 1874) state that energy systems governed by the principle of energy conservation.
The theories of Sigmund Freud and his ideas regarding psychoanalysis in relation to emotional problems created in childhood and theses experiences having unconscious effects.
The psychodynamic approach was developed in the 1940s and 1950s by the Object Relations School of Psychoanalysis pioneered an approach that focused on the relationship between the client and their close friends and family (Melanie Klein, Margaret Mahler).
Psychodynamic psychotherapy places great importance on the therapeutic dyad, for the relationship between the therapist and the client, transference and counter-transference. Positive changes are able to unfold within the context of the therapeutic dyad. This relationship is unique because the therapist maintains a uniform, neutral and accepting stance, listens objectively and without criticism.
The therapeutic approach assumes dysfunctional or unwanted behaviour is caused by unconscious, internal conflicts and focuses on gaining insight into these motivations.
The psychodynamic approach is focused on the relationship between the client and their close friends and family, on the person’s feelings to other people, unconscious thought processes, which manifest themselves in an individual's behaviour. It involves exploring past conflicts in relation to your current problems in order to make change possible.
Clients explore unresolved issues and conflicts from the past which affect them in the present.
The understanding gained frees the person to make choices about what happens in the future.
The primary goals of treatment: a continuation of general stability in the person's life.
Resistance is being late, missing a session, “holding back” the thoughts in the moment (i.e., refusing to speak about them) or avoiding a particular issue (not to confuse resistance with defence).
Attachment (John Bowlby, 1951): an infant has an inborn biological need for close contact with its mother, a normal bond developing within the first 6 months of life through the mother’s responsiveness to these needs, and maternal deprivation during this critical period having adverse effects on psychological development (depression, separation anxiety).
Negative therapeutic reaction (Sigmund Freud, 1923) is a temporary worsening of symptoms as a result of treatment.
Regression is a return to earlier, usually childish or infantile, patterns of thought or behaviour, the reversion to a chronologically earlier or less adapted pattern of behaviour and feeling.
Interpretation is a psychotherapist's explanation of the meaning of the client's remarks, dreams, memories, experiences, and behaviour.
Insight is an awareness and understanding, or self-understanding of the motives, reasons attitudes, feelings, behaviour, and disturbing symptoms behind the actions.
Acting out is the expression of intrapsychic conflict or painful emotion through overt behaviour. Such behaviour may be therapeutic in controlled psychotherapeutic situations. It may serve to reveal to the client the underlying conflict governing the behaviour.
Mentalisation is the ability to understand the mental state of oneself and others based on overt behaviour, a form of imaginative mental activity, which allows us to perceive and interpret human behaviour in terms of intentional mental states (e.g. needs, desires, feelings, beliefs, goals, purposes, and reasons). Mentalisation has implications for attachment-theory and for self-development. Simon Baron-Cohen, Chris Frith, and others applied it to neurobiologically based deficits in autism and schizophrenia. Peter Fonagy applied it to developmental psychopathology in the context of attachment relationships.
Working through is a process by which repressed feelings are released and reintegrated into the personality. It is exploration of a problem by a client and a therapist until a satisfactory solution has been found or a symptom traced to its unconscious roots.
Defence mechanism is an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires. It includes:
* Intellectualization (isolation);
* Reaction formation;
Integrative Psychotherapy - Theoretical integration Model is based firmly in psychoanalytic and psychodynamic understanding. Therapy is concerned to identify activity and personal meaning in the midst of apparent passivity. It is an interpersonal model of therapy.
Cognitive Analytic Therapy is also employing psychodynamic understanding.
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