Attitude is a settled way of thinking or feeling (117).
A person can have different mental postures towards a proposition (believing, desiring, or hoping). Attitude is an enduring pattern of evaluative responses toward a person, object or issue. It is a consistent pattern of affective, cognitive and behavioural responses (or of feeling, thinking, and behaving) toward a psychological object. Attitudes are positive, negative, ambivalent or neutral views of an “attitude object”. Attitudes come from judgments.
The ABC model (affect, behavioural change and cognition) means: the affective response expresses an individual's preference for an entity, the behavioural intention indication of the intention of an individual; the cognitive response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity to form an attitude.
Most attitudes in individuals are a result of observational learning from their environment, explicit attitudes. Implicit attitudes are unconscious. Implicit and explicit attitudes affect people's behaviour, though in different ways. Attitudes very often come in pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious.
Attitude is one of Jung's 57 definitions of Psychological Types.
Jung defines main attitude dualities: Consciousness and the unconscious (a duality particularly evident in neurosis); extraversion and introversion (attitude-types); rational and irrational attitudes (reason as an attitude), the rational attitude is subdivided into the thinking and feeling psychological functions, each with its attitude, the irrational attitude subdivides into the sensing and intuition psychological functions, each with its attitude. “There is thus a typical thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuitive attitude” (Jung) (23).
Attitude is a function of experience, can be changed indirectly.
The Social Judgment theory of attitude change (Carl Hovland and Muzafer Sherif) states that attitude change is influenced by judgmental processes. The latitude of rejection, within which any position will be seen as more different from one's own due to contrast effects.
Attitudes can be changed through persuasion (Carl Hovland) as a response to communication.
Persuasion is the process by which the attitude change is brought about, usually by the presentation of the message, containing arguments in favour or against the person, object, or issue to which the attitude applies.
Target can affect attitude.
Characteristics refer to the person who receives and processes a message: intelligence, self esteem, the mind frame and mood of the target (higher intelligence, self-esteem levels of a person is less easily persuaded, same as a person with low self-esteem level).
The major source characteristics are trustworthiness and interpersonal attraction/attractiveness, the credibility of a perceived message, credibility of a source (effect which disappeared after several weeks is sleeper effect).
The nature of the message plays a role in persuasion, as presenting both sides of a story is useful to help change attitudes. A message can appeal to an individual's cognitive evaluation to help change an attitude, to evaluate the data and arrive at an attitude changing conclusion (23).
The relationships between attitude and behaviour
Attitude is a consistent pattern of affective, cognitive or behavioural responses towards a psychological object.
The behavioural intention is a verbal indication of the intention of an individual. Human behaviour can be irrational and depends on the link between attitude and behaviour; an attitude can explain this irrationality.
Implicit and explicit attitudes affect people's behaviour, though in different ways. Cognitive dissonance forms tendency to generate dissonance-reducing behaviour.
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