Algorithms, or decision procedures, are methods used to solve decision problems. An algorithm for the decision problem explains how to determine factors constructing the problem (60).
A decision problem which can be solved by some algorithm is called decidable. The answer can be either “yes” or “no”. In this sense a decision problem is equivalent to a formal language (60).
A function problem is a problem other than a decision problem and requires a more complex answer than “yes” or “no”.
If we categorize decidable decision problems by the level of difficulty of solving, so difficult one requires the most efficient algorithm. In this sense there are decidable, semi-decidable and un-decidable problems. Deterministic algorithms solve the problem with exact decision at every step of the algorithm, non-deterministic algorithm solve problems via guessing although typical guesses are made more accurate through the use of heuristics (60).
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