Agoraphobia causes and contributing factors
The exact causes of agoraphobia are currently unknown.
The condition has been linked to a stressful environment or substance abuse.
Use of tranquilizers and sleeping pills such as benzodiazepines has been linked to causing agoraphobia. When benzodiazepine dependence has been treated and after a period of abstinence, agoraphobia symptoms gradually become less intense.
Agoraphobia is also associated with difficulties with spatial orientation. Individuals without agoraphobia are able to maintain balance by combining information from their vestibular system, their visual system and their proprioceptive sense. A disproportionate number of people with agoraphobia have weak vestibular function and consequently rely more on visual or tactile signals. They may become disoriented when visual signals are sparse as in wide open spaces or overwhelming as in crowds. Likewise, they may be confused by sloping or irregular surfaces. Compared to controls, in virtual reality studies, people with agoraphobia on average show impaired processing of changing audiovisual data (9).
Attachment theory explained agoraphobia as an attachment deficit, i.e., the temporary loss of the ability to tolerate spatial separations from a secure base. Recent empirical research has also linked attachment and spatial theories of agoraphobia (111).
Relaxation techniques are often useful skills for people with agoraphobia to develop, as they can be used to stop or prevent symptoms of anxiety and panic.
Stress management techniques and various kinds of meditation practices as well as visualization techniques can help people with anxiety disorders (111).
It is vital that clients remain in the situation until anxiety has become less intense because if they leave the situation the phobic response will not decrease and it may even rise (9).
Counselling and psychotherapy may be provided via Skype and FaceTime in the comfort of your home, office or any place of your choice.